Nov. 10: POPE ST. LEO THE GREAT
Doctor of the Church.
Short bio and accomplishments.
St. Leo the Great (d.461) was a vigorous defender of the unity of the Church and pushed back the onrush of the barbarians under Attila. During his pontificate, the Council of Chalcedon (451) defined that there is in Christ one divine person and two natures, divine and human. It was a confirmation of his Epistola Dogmatica (Tomus) to the Patriach Flavian of Constantinople.
During the disintegration of the Western Empire, when heresy was rife and all moral values were threatened by the barbarian invasions, Pope Leo I stands out as the resolute champion of the faith. His courage and sagacity lifted the prestige of the Holy See mightily, and earned for him the title of “The Great,” a distinction bestowed on but one other pope, Gregory I. The Church honored Leo further with the title of Doctor because of his expositions of Christian doctrine, extracts from which are now incorporated in the lessons of the Catholic breviary.
Of his birth and early years we have no reliable information; his family was probably Tuscan. We know that he was at Rome as a deacon under Pope Celestine I and Pope Sixtus III, whose pontificates ran from 422 to 440. Leo must have achieved eminence early, for even then he corresponded with Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria, and Cassian dedicated his treatise against Nestorius to him.
ELECTION AS ROMAN PONTIFF
In 440 Leo was sent to Gaul to try to make peace between the imperial generals, Aetius and Albinus. Soon afterward Pope Sixtus died, and a deputation came up from Rome to inform Leo that he had been elected to the chair of St. Peter. His consecration took place in September of that year, and he at once began to show great energy in the performance of the papal duties.
The new pope set himself to make the Roman church a pattern for all other churches. In the ninety-six sermons which have come down to us, we find Leo:
- stressing the virtues of almsgiving, fasting, and prayer, and also expounding Catholic doctrine with clarity and conciseness, in particular the dogma of the Incarnation.
- He was determined to shield his flock from heresy, and when he discovered that many Manichaeans, who had fled from the Vandals in Africa, had settled in Rome and were spreading their errors, he summoned them before a council of clergy and laymen. Under cross- examination some confessed to immoral practices and some recanted. Against the recalcitrant, Leo invoked the secular authority; their books were burned, and they themselves were banished or else left Rome of their own volition.
- Meanwhile he was preaching vigorously against the false teaching, as Augustine had done earlier, and writing letters of warning to all the Italian bishops. One hundred and forty-three letters written by him and thirty letters written to him have been preserved; they illustrate the Pope’s extraordinary vigilance over the Church in all parts of the Empire.
- He also encouraged the bishops, especially the Italian ones, to come to Rome to consult him in person.
AGAINST THE HERESY OF PRISCILLIANISM
From Spain Turibius, bishop of Astorga, sent Leo a copy of a letter he had been circulating on the heresy of Priscillianism.
- The sect had made great headway in Spain and some of the Catholic clergy favored it. As it developed there, it seems to have combined astrology and fatalism with the Manichaean theory of the evil of matter.
- Leo wrote back a long refutation of this doctrine and described the measures he had taken against the Manichaeans in Rome. Several times he was asked to arbitrate affairs in Gaul. Twice he nullified acts of the saintly Hilary, bishop of Arles, who had exceeded his powers.
PRIMACY OF ROME
- The Emperor Valentinian III in the famous edict of 445 denounced the Gallic bishop and declared “that nothing should be done in Gaul contrary to ancient usage, without the authority of the bishop of Rome, and that the decree of the apostolic see should henceforth be law.” Thus was the primacy of Rome given official recognition.
- One of Leo’s letters to Anastasius, bishop of Thessalonica, reminds him that all bishops had a right to appeal to Rome, “according to ancient tradition.”
RULES REGARDING PRIESTHOOD
- In 446 he writes to the African church in Mauretania, forbidding the appointment of a layman to the episcopate, or of any man who had been twice married or who had married a widow. (I Timothy iii,2.)
- The rules which he incorporated into Church law regarding admission to the priesthood deserve mention: former slaves and those employed in unlawful or unseemly occupations could not be ordained; to be acceptable, candidates must be mature men who had already proved themselves in the service of the Church.
AGAINST THE REVIVAL OF NESTORIAN HERESY IN THE EAST
Leo was now called upon to deal with difficulties in the East far greater than any he had so far encountered in the West.
- In the year 448, he received a letter from Abbot Eutyches of Constantinople, complaining of a revival of the Nestorian heresy at Antioch. The next year came a second letter, copies of which he sent also to the patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem. In this Eutyches protested against a sentence of excommunication just issued against him by Flavian, patriarch of Constantinople, and asked to be reinstated. His appeal was supported by a letter from the Emperor of the East, Theodosius II.
- As no official notice of the proceedings at Constantinople had hitherto reached Rome, Leo wrote to Flavian for his version; with his reply, he sent a report of the synod at which Eutyches had been condemned. From this it seemed clear that EUTYCHES had fallen into the ERROR OF DENYING THE HUMAN NATURE OF CHRIST, a heresy which was the opposite of Nestorianism.
THE ROBBER COUNCIL OF EPHESUS DECLARED NULL AND VOID
A council was summoned at Ephesus by Theodosius, ostensibly to inquire impartially into the matter. Actually it was packed with friends of Eutyches and presided over by one of his strongest supporters, Dioscorus, patriarch of Alexandria.
- This gathering, which Leo branded as a ROBBER COUNCIL, acquitted Eutyches and condemned Flavian, who was also subjected to physical violence.
- The Pope’s legates refused to subscribe to the unjust sentence; they were not allowed to read to the council a letter from Leo to Flavian, known later as Leo’s “Tome”.
- One legate was imprisoned and the other escaped with difficulty.
- As soon as the Pope heard of these proceedings, he declared the decisions null and void, and wrote a bold letter to the Emperor, in which he said: “Leave to the bishops the liberty of defending the faith; neither worldly power nor terror will ever succeed in destroying it. Protect the Church and seek to preserve its peace, that Christ in His turn may protect your empire.“
COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON: TWO-FOLD NATURE OF CHRIST (DIVINE AND HUMAN)
Two years later, in 451, under a new emperor, Marcian, a greater council was held at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor.
- At least six hundred bishops were present. Leo sent three legates. Flavian was dead but his memory was vindicated; Dioscorus was convicted of having maliciously suppressed Leo’s letters at the Robbers’ Council, and of virtually excommunicating the Pope himself. For these and other offenses he was declared excommunicate and deposed.
- Leo’s “Tome” of 449 to Flavian was now read by his legates to the council. In it he concisely defined the Catholic doctrine of the Incarnation and the two natures of Christ, avoiding the pitfalls of Nestorianism on the one hand and of Eutychianism on the other. “Peter has spoken by the mouth of Leo!” exclaimed the bishops. This statement of the two-fold nature of Christ was to be accepted by later ages as the Church’s official teaching. Leo, however, refused to confirm the council’s canon which recognized the patriarch of Constantinople as primate over the East.
PROTECTION OF ROME AGAINST THE VANDALS, ATTILA AND GENSERIC
In the meantime, serious events of another kind were happening in the West. Attila, “the scourge of God,” after overrunning Greece and Germany with his Huns, had penetrated France, where he had been defeated at Chalons by the imperial general Aetius.
- Falling back, he gathered fresh forces, and then entered Italy from the northeast, burning Aquileia and leaving destruction in his wake.
- After sacking Milan and Pavia, he set out to attack the capital. The wretched Emperor Valentinian III shut himself up within the walls of remote Ravenna; panic seized the people of Rome.
- IN THE EMERGENCY, LEO, UPHELD BY A SENSE OF HIS SACRED OFFICE, SET OUT TO MEET ATTILA, ACCOMPANIED BY AVIENUS, THE CONSUL, TRIGETIUS, THE GOVERNOR OF THE CITY, AND A BAND OF PRIESTS. NEAR WHERE THE RIVERS PO AND MINCIO MEET, THEY CAME FACE TO FACE WITH THE ENEMY. THE POPE REASONED WITH ATTILA AND INDUCED HIM TO TURN BACK.
- A few years later the Vandal king, Genseric, appeared from Africa with his army before the walls of Rome, then almost defenseless. This time Leo was able to win from the invader only the promise to restrain his troops from arson and carnage.
- After ten days of pillaging the city, the Vandals withdrew, taking back to Africa a host of captives and immense booty, but sparing the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul.
REBUILDING OF ROME FROM THE VANDAL INVASION AND DEATH
Leo now set about repairing the damage brought by the invasion. To the Italian captives in Africa he sent priests, alms, and aid in rebuilding their churches.
- He was apparently never discouraged, maintaining a steady trust in God in the most desperate situations.
- His pontificate lasted for twenty-one years, and during this time he won the veneration of rich and poor, emperors and barbarians, clergy and laity.
- He died on November 10, 461, and his body was laid in the Vatican basilica, where his tomb may still be seen.
BIOGRAPHY SOURCE: http://www.ewtn.com/library/mary/leo.htm (titles and highlights mine).
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